GIA Certification
GIA Certification

GIA (Gemological Institute of America) is the world’s most authoritative organization for grading Diamonds. It’s also the Institution that founded the 4Cs, the world’s standard for grading a Diamond’s quality, accepted and commonly used by professional jewelers these days. At VENUS TEARS, we have a wide range of GIA certified high quality Diamonds. Along with your purchased Diamond, we will provide the GIA certificate which indicates the Diamond’s 4Cs.

Diamond’s 4Cs

Diamond’s 4Cs

Until middle of the 20th century, there was no shared standards when it comes to grading Diamonds.
GIA developed what the world is commonly using now, the 4Cs – A standardized method of grading Diamonds to express the quality of all Diamonds.
Today, the 4Cs are recognized and used worldwide as an international standard for grading Diamonds. The 4Cs are composed of these 4 categories: Color / Clarity / Cut / Carat.
Knowing the 4Cs of a Diamond, you will be able to make more precise decisions and have a better understanding about the type of Diamond you are looking for. As a matter of course, all Sales Associates at VENUS TEARS are well equipped with these knowledge. Feel free to liaise with us and receive consultation about find the right Diamond for you.

All GIA certified diamonds sold at VENUS TEARS comes with Grading Report.

All GIA certified diamonds sold at VENUS TEARS comes with Grading Report.

This report shows a Diamond’s weight and Quality based on the results of professional examination.
Precise measurements of the Diamond are stated and shown as a diagram on the report. From its maximum and minimum diameter, depth from table to culet, proportion (ratio of face of table, angle of crown, angle of pavilion, girdle’s thickness, intensity of Fluorescence when exposed to UV light, to Clarity Characteristics, all are stated in detail.
The GIA Grading report is what defines the world’s standard, and also verifies the quality and authenticity of Diamonds sold at VENUS TEARS.

About GIA

GIA is the world’s foremost authority on Jewelry

In order to let Diamond owners have a “sense of security”, GIA created a standard of “4Cs” for judging diamonds.
Nowadays, GIA has become the most widely recognized institution in the identification of “Quality” for Diamonds.
GIA has been set up for public benefit, and is a non-profit institute. GIA is the leading source of knowledge, standards, and education for all gems and jewellery.

The 4C are as such: Color, Clarity, Cut, Carat . All 4, starting with the letter C, are the criterion used to determine the method for establishing the quality of all Diamonds in the world.

To allow customers to have a sense of security and ease of mind while purchasing Diamonds, GIA created the standard of “4Cs”. Knowing the “4C” of a Diamond, customers can determine a Diamond quality easily, understanding what they are purchasing exactly.

Understanding the 4Cs of Diamond


GIA’s Color-Grading Scale for diamonds has been used as an industry standard. The scale begins with the letter D, representing colorless,
and continues with increasing presence of color to the letter Z, which is light yellow or brown. Each letter grade has a defined range of color appearance. Diamonds are color-graded by comparing them to stones of known colors under controlled lighting and precise viewing conditions.

Many of these color distinctions are so subtle that it will appear invisible to the untrained eye. But these slight differences makes a very big difference in Diamond Quality and Price.

FAQ for Color

Q. Why does GIA’s Color-Grading Scale start from D ? Z, instead of A – Z?

A. Before GIA developed the D-Z Color Grading Scale, a variety of other systems were loosely applied. These included letters of the alphabet (A, B and C, with multiple A’s for the best stones), Arabic (0, 1, 2, 3) and Roman (I, II, III) numerals, and vague descriptions such as “Gem Blue” or “Blue White.” The result of having multiple grading systems was inconsistency and inaccuracy. Founders of the GIA Color-Grading Scale wanted to start afresh, without any association with earlier systems. Therefore they chose to start the GIA Color-Grading Scale with the letter D?a letter grade that has not yet been associated with top quality.

Q. How is the ‘Color’ of a Diamond determined?

A. The Color of how a Diamond appears to be depends on the source of light and background. Therefore, the Color is Graded by comparison in a controlled environment, with the source of light and background remaining the same. A minimum of 2 GIA Graders are assigned to evaluate the Diamond individually, using their own controlled environment. The Color Grade is not determined until there is sufficient consensus between the 2 Grader’s evaluation.


Natural Diamonds are formed under extreme high temperatures as well as pressure deep within the earth. This results in a variety of internal characteristics called Inclusions and external characteristics called blemishes.

A Diamond of Clarity“VS1” and “SI2” may look the same in untrained eyes.
Clarity is Graded under standard viewing conditions with 10x magnification.

No inclusions or blemishes are visible to a skilled grader using 10× magnification

No inclusions and only blemishes are visible to a skilled grader using 10× magnification

Inclusions are present but hardly visible to a skilled grader using 10× magnification

Inclusions are present and range from hardly visible – visible to a skilled grader using 10x magnification

Inclusions are present and very noticeable to a skilled grader using 10x magnification

Inclusions are present and very obvious to a skilled grader using 10× magnification and may affect transparency and brilliance

During a Diamond’s natural formation, virtually all Diamonds contains small imperfections. Flawless {FL} refers to Diamonds that are completely without such imperfections.

FAQ for Clarity

Q. How was GIA’s Clarity Grading established?

A. Similar to GIA’s Color Grading, before GIA was established, jewelers from across the world did not have a clear criterion used to define a Diamond’s Clarity. Vague descriptions such as “loupe clean” and “the picket“ were used, which resulted in misunderstandings. GIA’s Clarity Grading was established with a objective and criterion that it has to be clear, as well as being “a common language” that the whole world may use.
Jewelers from across the world would describe the Clarity of a Diamond in GIA’s Clarity Grading such as “VVS1” and “SI2“.

Q. What are Inclusions?

A. Small crystals may be trapped in a Diamond during its formation, resulting in inclusions. Irregularities in a Diamond’s atomic structure may also result in inclusions.

Q.How is the ‘Clarity’ of a Diamond determined?

A. A Diamond is graded under standard viewing condition using 10x magnification. A minimum of 2 GIA Graders are assigned to evaluate the Diamond individually, where they carefully examine the Diamond in order to identify its Clarity characteristics and evidence of any Clarity Treatments such as Fracture Filling or Laser Drilling, and then plot the Clarity characteristics on the diagram most representative of the diamond’s shape and faceting style. The Clarity Grade is not determined until there is sufficient consensus between the 2 Grader’s evaluation.


Diamonds are reowned for its ability to transmit light and intense sparkle.

Beauty and Value of a Diamond is highly dependent on its Cutting. It is said that a Diamond’s Cut is the most complicated and toughest part in judging a Diamond’s 4C.

For Round Brilliant Cuts, GIA grades Diamonds based on these 3 optical features:

  • Brightness : Amount of Internal and External white light reflected.
  • Fire : Scattering of white light into colors of the rainbow.
  • Scintillation : Amount and Intensity of sparkles a Diamond can produce.

A Diamond’s Cut Grade is further sub-divided into 3 categories, where the design and craftsmanship is taken into account.

  • Cut : The Diamond’s weight relative to its diameter, and its girdle thickness, which affects its durability.
  • Symmetry : The symmetry of its facet arrangement.
  • Polish : The quality of polish on the Diamond’s facets.


In a Perfect Cut Diamond, 8 distinct arrows can be seen when looked though the loupe from a top down view, and 8 hearts from a bottom up view.

FAQ for Cut

Q. How does “Pavilion Depth” influence a Cut Grade?

A. Pavilion Depth refers to the distance from the bottom edge of a Diamond’s Girdle to its Culet. Idealistically, light rays can bounce within the diamond and be reflected out at the proper angles. When it is too deep or shallow, light leaks out from the sides or lower part of the diamond resulting in dark spots.

Q. Why does GIA not have a Grading System for Fancy Cut Diamonds?

A. There is a wide variety of Fancy Cuts available other than the standard Round Brilliant, and GIA prioritizes the accuracy and consistency for their evaluation standards. At the moment, there isn’t a internationally recognized Grading System for Fancy Cut Diamonds, however at GIA, research is underway to developing basic concepts for designing and implementing such a Grading System.

Q. How is the ‘Cut’ of a Diamond determined?

A. GIA conducted extensive computerized modelling of Round Brilliant Diamonds over a 15-year period, as well as more than 70,000 observations on actual stones to validate this research. This Cut Grading System can now predict the Cut Grade for more than 38.5 million different proportion sets. GIA’s Cut Grading System assesses the Diamond’s overall face-up appearance to estimate the intensity levels of it’s Brightness, Fire, and Scintillation.


Measurements of a Diamond’s Carat is based on its weight. A metric Carat is defined as 200 milligrams (0.2 grams).

Each carat can be subdivided into 100 point, which allows very precise measurements.
For Diamonds below 1 Carat, a jeweller may describe its weight by ‘points’ alone. For example, the jeweller may refer to a Diamond that weighs 0.25 Carats as a ‘twenty-five pointer.’
Diamonds above 1 Carat are expressed in carats and decimals. For example, the jeweller may refer to a Diamond that weighs 1.08 Carat as ‘one point oh eight carats’.

With the condition of all else being equal, a Diamond’s price increases in accordance to its Carat, because larger Diamonds are much rarer and therefore more desirable. However, 2 Diamonds of equal Carat can have very different values (and prices) depending on 3 other factors of the Diamond’s 4C.

FAQ for Carat

Q. Is there a difference in ‘Carat’ or ‘Karat’?

A. ‘Karat’ which may be abbreviated to “K” or “Kt”, is a unit used to express purity of Gold.

Q. How did the term’‘Carat’ originated?

A. In Etymology, ‘Carat’ came from the Greek word for a carob seed, ‘keration’. Because carob seeds were believed to have a fairly uniform weight, early gem traders used them as counterweights in their balance scales.

Q. What kind of weight does the ‘Magic Size’ refer to?

A. Some weights are considered ‘Magic Sizes’: 0.5 Carat, 0.7 Carat, 1 Carat, etc. For example, in a comparison between a 0.99 Carat and a 1.01 Carat Diamond of equivalent 3Cs, the fact that the second stone is slightly over the “Magic” 1 Carat size can give it as much as a 20% difference in price with only a 2-point difference in weight.

Q. How is the ‘Carat’ of a Diamond measured?

A. Diamonds are weighed using an electronic scale. They are weighted to the thousandth (.001) of a Carat and then rounded to the nearest hundredth (.01). The Carat will only be rounded up to the nearest hundredth if the thousandth digit is a 9. For example, a Diamond that weights 1.268 Carat will be rounded to 1.26 Carat, whereas a Diamond that weights 1.269 Carat will be rounded to 1.27 Carat.

Advanced Diamond knowledge

Information on Fluorescence

In Diamonds, Fluorescence is the effect that ultraviolet (UV) light has on a diamond. When you stand under a blue light or ultraviolet light, you may see that your whites gets brighter or your teeth appears to glow. This is the same effect Diamonds have under the UV rays. Fluorescence is the visible light that a Diamond emits when it is exposed to UV rays. On a GIA Diamond Grading Report, Fluorescence refers to the strength, or intensity, of the Diamond’s reaction to long-wave UV light, which is an essential component of daylight.

FAQ for Fluorescence

Q. What kind of influence does ‘Fluorescence’ have on the appearances of Diamonds?

A. According to GIA’s findings, for majority of Diamonds, the presence of ‘Fluorescence’ has no noticeable impact on appearance. In the GIA Fluorescence Study, it was found that an average person could not make a distinction between Diamonds with ‘Fluorescence’ and Diamonds without.
Some Diamonds with extremely strong ‘Fluorescence‘ may appear hazy or oily. However, this constitutes only less than 0.2% of all Diamonds submitted to GIA with ‘Fluorescence’ present.

Q. Does ‘Fluorescence’ being present means a Diamond is weaker in terms of structural integrity?

A. No. A Diamond with ‘Fluorescence’ has the same structural integrity as Diamonds without ‘Fluorescence’. Microscopic substitutions and/or shifts in a Diamond structure can cause ‘Fluorescence’ or can prevent it. Nothing in either instance will weaken or is bad for the Diamond.

Treated Diamonds, Artificial Diamonds, Simulated Diamonds

In recent years, there has been an increase in demand for Treated Diamonds, Artificial Diamonds, as well as Simulated Diamonds. As a result, scientific advancement for such Diamonds have improved by leaps and bounds, making it far more difficult to distinguish these from a completely natural Diamond that has not gone through processing.

Treated Diamonds

Also known as Enhanced Diamonds, these refer to natural Diamonds that have gone through specific treatments, which are designed to improve the visual characteristics of a Diamond. Treatments for Diamonds are generally categorized into 2 different types, either for improving its Color or for Clarity. GIA only certifies Diamonds that have undergone permanent treatments, which will be indicated on the report.

1) Color Treatments

There are 3 major methods used to artificially alter the Color of a Diamond.
Irradiation: By exposing a Diamond to radiation, the atomic structure of a Diamond can be altered to lessen or intensify its Color. This process is usually permanent, and applied to Diamonds which are already Cut and Polished.
Coatings: Applications of thin films or coating on to the Pavilion or Girdle of a Diamond. This thin film or coating are removable, therefore the Color may wear off after some time. This treatment is applied to Diamonds which are already Cut and Polished.
HPHT: Application of High Pressure and High Temperature to Diamonds that are not fully crystallized, also known as ‘Premature Diamonds’. Only Diamonds with high Clarity may undergo this treatment, as inclusions present in Diamonds may cause it to crack when subjected to HPHT. Through this process, Diamonds can have a permanent and drastic difference in Color.

2) Clarity Treatments

There are mainly 2 types of techniques for improving the Clarity of a Diamond.
Laser Drilling: By boring holes in the Diamond using laser, this technique allows removal of dark inclusions. Bleaching agents may then be introduced to improve the inclusions appearance. This process is permanent, however do take note that if a Diamond contains too many drilled channels, it may affect the Diamond’s structural integrity.
Fracture Filling: This is a process where cavities or tunnels left by Laser Drilling is filled with a crystal substance, making the cavities or tunnels look less visible. This process is not permanent, and if subjected to heat or ultra-sonic cleaning, the crystal substance may be destroyed.

Artificial Diamonds

Artificial Diamonds, also known as Synthetic Diamonds are man-made. They are produced in an artificial process instead of geological process. Artificial Diamonds may also be called as HPHT Diamond, or CVD Diamond, named after the 2 common production methods. Artificial Diamonds are identical to natural Diamonds in term of Chemical Composition, Physical Properties as well as Crystal Structure. It is highly difficult for an experienced Gemologist to differentiate between the 2 without the aid of equipment. The value of Artificial Diamonds are lower than natural Diamonds, however it is not highly popular due to the unromantic notion that it is created in a few days, compared to natural Diamonds which takes millions of years to form.

Simulated Diamonds

Simulated Diamonds, also known as Imitation Diamonds, are different from Diamonds in terms of Chemical Composition and Physical Properties. They are however similar in terms of Gemology Characteristics. The most common simulants used are Cubic Zirconia, Moissanite and Quartz. On the Mohs’ (Hardness) Scale, Diamonds are rated as 10. Simulated Diamonds may have a rating ranging 7-9.25 on Mohs’ Scale. Gemological Institutes does not issue Grading Reports for Simulated Diamonds.

FAQ for Advanced Diamond Knowledge

Q. How do I know if a Diamond has been Treated?

A. GIA does not grade Diamonds that has undergone any treatment process that’s considered impermanent, such as coating or fracture filling. GIA do grade Diamonds that have been laser drilled or HPHT processed, as these are considered permanent processes, and will indicate prominently the treatment details on the report.

Q. How do I know if a Diamond is a Artificial Diamond?

A. GIA conducts multiple tests as well as checks to identify if the Diamond is artificially created, or natural. It will be prominently indicated on the GIA Grading Report whether it is artificial, and additionally engraved on the girdle of the Diamond.

Q. How do I know if a Diamond is a Simulated Diamond?

A. GIA tests every Diamond to verify that it is real, and does not issue Grading Reports for Simulated Diamonds.

The history of Diamonds

Diamonds, the beautiful, rare and durable gem that has fascinated people since its discovery, has a long history. Today we will be sharing more about its origin and history.

Diamonds go through many processes before being sold by a jeweler. Diamonds are generated at ultrahigh pressure and ultrahigh temperature deep in the earth and are pushed up by strong force until they reach the surface or near the surface. From there, it can be extracted by the power of nature and humans and can be cut and polished into beautiful diamonds.

The history of diamonds begins in India.
Exclusive diamonds collected from rural rivers were traded in a limited market only for the wealthiest people of India. Over time, Indian diamonds are transported to the medieval markets of Venice, where they reach Western Europe.

Later in Europe in the 15th century, diamonds became fashionable accessories worn by elites.Pearls, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires were still the center of fashion as they began to play an active role in the privileged class, but when the polishing method was established, diamonds were beautifully cut, making them valuable as jewelry.

Subsequently, the rose-cut and the briolette cut were developed in the 16th and 17th century respectively.

The round brilliant cut diamond is the most well-known and popular shape of diamond cut. It was first created in the 17th century, but it wasn’t until 100 years ago that the cut really started to come into its own. With the technology that is available now, computers are used to determine the exact characteristics of a diamond, using light to increase the glow in a diamond.

In early 18th century, the Indian diamond supply began to decline, with Brazil emerging as the next candidate. Diamonds were discovered while a gold miner was sifting through local river gravel. Since then, Brazil has dominated the diamond market for over 150 years.

During the 19th century, when wealthy people increased in Western Europe and the United States, and demand for diamonds surge in the late 19th century, explorers unearthed a giant diamond deposit for the first time in South Africa.Diamonds were discovered in Kimberley, South Africa, in 1866.In 1888, the entrepreneur founded De Beers Consolidated Mines Limited. De Beers mined diamonds at a South African mine. The amount of excavation was tremendous, and in the 20th century, it dominated 90% of the world production of rough diamonds.

The advent of this South African source has affected many diamond-related industries. Huge costs and low output have created new demand. It has led to advances in cutting and polishing, which have resulted in efficiency, cost savings and a better finished appearance.

The annual production of rough diamonds in the 1870s was less than one million carats.In the 1920s, it reached 3 million carats. Fifty years later, the annual output reached 50 million carats, and in the 1990s it exceeded 100 million carats per year.

By the end of 1970, the main diamond producing countries were South Africa, Zaire (now called the Democratic Republic of Congo) and the former Soviet Union. In the 1980s, the production of high-quality diamonds from Russia and South Africa remained stable, but the production of low-quality diamonds from Zaire more than doubled.

In 1982, many high-quality diamonds were produced in Botswana, a country in Southern Africa. Botswana is the third-largest diamond producer in the world and second in diamond value. De Beers has signed a contract with the Botswana government to purchase all the diamonds from the mine. Up to this point, it is no exaggeration to say that De Beers held the entire diamond market. However, the discovery of Australian sources in 1985 and the discovery of new deposits in northern Canada in 2000 will significantly change and expand diamond mining worldwide.

The rapid change in the global economy has also assisted in the significant change in the diamond market from 1990. The growth of cutting centers was seen with the increase of new origins. Diamonds that were only available from De Beers were now available from multiple channels.

That said, not everything has changed. Today, diamonds still go from the mine through the cutting center to the market for the first time for retail sale to customers. Diamonds that fascinated people can be said to have eternal brilliance.

Diamond’s Etymology

Diamonds were called Adamas in Rome in ancient Europe to describe hard things including steel. This Adamas is transformed from Diamas to Diamant and is later called a diamond.Adamas is a Greek word for power that cannot be conquered. Diamond is one of the allotropes of carbon (C) and is the hardest natural substance on earth. In Japanese, it is also called Kongo stone. It is also said to be derived from the immortality of Kongo in the Buddhist scriptures.Diamonds do not conduct electricity. The reason for this is that there are no unpaired electrons in the crystal atoms.

Present-day diamonds
Although the charm of diamonds has been valued for centuries, scientists, physicists, geologists, mineralogists, and marine biologist had no scientific knowledge of diamonds before the 20th century. Research has made it possible to know how diamonds are formed and brought to the surface. As a result, it became possible to predict the diamond production area, and now many diamonds are produced.

In the 20th century, diamonds became artificially made. Until then, there were fake diamonds that imitated diamonds, but instead it became possible to artificially create real diamonds that have the same texture as natural diamonds. At the beginning of the success, it was possible to produce only very small grains and it was more expensive than natural diamond, but now it is possible to manufacture artificial diamond of cheaper and stable quality than natural diamond.All manufactured artificial diamonds are turned into industrial diamonds, and artificial diamonds occupy almost half of the share of industrial diamonds. So, could it be that artificial diamonds are sold as natural diamonds?

While current technology can produce diamonds large enough to withstand jewelry, producing such large diamonds is still expensive and more costly than natural diamonds of the same grade. Moreover, since manufacturing requires a lot of equipment, there should be no scam such that artificial diamonds are sold as natural diamonds.

If the technology advances in the future and artificial diamonds can be manufactured in a cost-effective way, a new history of diamonds will be born…